Civil War Overview
Civil War 1861
Civil War 1862
Civil War 1863
Civil War 1864
Civil War 1865
Civil War Battles
Robert E. Lee
Civil War Medicine
Civil War Links
Civil War Art
Republic of Texas
Civil War Gifts
Robert E. Lee Portrait
form of government fell, he secured
forever and for all
Englishmen the civil rights for which John
If the Government of the
United States would take a final leave
of weak counsels and weak actions it would simultaneously take leave of
disaster and defeat.
Mr. Seward, for instance, is a scholar. How does he
think conciliation would have worked in Ireland? How would it have
answered in Scotland? Instead
of the way of conciliation, Cromwell
took that of Tredar
and Dunbar. And consequently
life, rights, expense of
every kind, and untold delays
and disasters were saved.
No man advises massacres or murders
in waging war. But to
prevent them, strike when you
strike, don't pat. When
you have read your
riot act, and have summoned rioters to disperse before your loaded
muskets, give them time to go. If
they stay and threaten and you still wish to be
merciful, fire into them, not
over them. Every bullet that you
fire over the heads of the
enemy kills ten of your own
men before it is spent. Napoleon knew that, and never fired until he meant to
In the droll debate at Richmond Mr. Ayer, another Carolina comedian, said that "Mirabeau,
the French philosopher, declared that the only way to conduct a successful
revolution was to dare, to dare again, and still to dare." The Southern
statesmen are very proud of their literature, and of their general superiority
to the mud-sills of the North, but Mr. Ayer must rub up his history a little.
Mirabeau was an orator,
not a philosopher; and Mirabeau did not say it. It was the speech of
Danton, a very different person—an appropriate authority for Mr. Aver to quote
in a rebel Congress.
Mr. Ayer will not forget how and where Danton ended, after his dare, and
dare, and dare. He had his
head cut off by those who dared a
little more than he.
Yet, whoever says it,
victory belongs to vigor, and vigor comes
from conviction, and conviction makes all methods clear and easy Let
the Government understand the conviction
of the nation and follow its
wishes, and a victory which
settles the war will be the result.
I'LL pray for thee, I'll pray for
thee, my noble-hearted son!
Go forth and fight for Liberty until the cause is won.
It may seem strange a while to miss thy comfort and thy care,
But now our army calls for aid, and thou art needed there.
I'll pray for thee, I'll pray for thee, go forth upon thy way:
A mother's love shall follow thee, and bless thee day by
I would not place my feeble hand before thy kindling eyes
While gazing on the
altar—red with freedom's sacrifice!
No! leave me now and act thy part. Yet sometimes at the hour
When twilight shadows gather round, and gentler thoughts
To sway the heart, oh! think of her who hourly prays for thee;
And bind the watch-word to thy heart—the watch-word,
SPECIMENS OF BRITISH WIT
OUR old friend
Punch, which used once to be so merry
and genial a companion,
has latterly been devoting a good
deal of attention to the United
States, and has sent over an
agent here to procure
subscriptions for the republication of its back volumes. Some
of Punch's good things about
this country are so bright and
cheery and kindly that we have thought it would do our readers good to
see a few of them, collected
from half a dozen recent
numbers, as models of
British good humor and
genial compliment. Time was
when Punch was the undying foe to slavery
every where. Now he says, sighing over
the reduced market for
British manufactures in this
Jonathan and Jefferson, come listen to my song—
I can't decide, upon my word, which of you is most wrong:
I do declare I am afraid to say which worse behaves,
The North imposing bonds on trade, or South that man
PUNCH SENDS US
The ultimate destiny manifest to mankind at large as that which is reserved for
you Yankees is not that of going where all good niggers go.
WE ARE BRUTAL AND
I must say, friend Jonathan, to judge thy the way in which you are going on,
that, as regards this world
at any rate, your manifest destiny—a destiny in evident course of
accomplishment—is that of descending to the very lowest place. It has for some
time been said that, in form and features, your people are approaching the Red
Indian type, and I now find you exulting in the worst brutality of Sepoys, while
you also emulate their malignant ferocity.
THE LOWEST KIND OF
Jonathan, you see, you are sinking
from bad to worse, from
savage to lower savage, and your manifest destiny, at that rate of
decadence, is the zero of humanity. But will you stop there, Jonathan?
YAHOOS, IN FACT—.
Your manifest destiny, unless you return to reason, is all
of you to be turned to apes with foreheads villainous low. You will be up a tree
indeed, holding on with your feet as well as your hands. like the other
quadrumana. Already, Jonathan, you have morally subsided to the undermost moral
level. Take care you don't
physically degenerate into a Yahoo.
Woman is the Englishman's friend, the American's
doll. Poor Dolly, she is ruthlessly smashed the moment she even winks
derision. But how do the brave but susceptible Northerners treat
men who manifest similar contempt? General Banks runs away from
them—gives them the cut direct. Perhaps this is almost as safe a course as
The Orleans Princes avowedly went out to learn the art of war, and they found
their teachers the most helpless blunderers that ever undertook what they could
not perform. It was duty to their own character to leave as soon as they
discovered how they had been swindled.
In addition to this, the Orleans Princes are gentlemen, and it must have been
odious to them to remain in a service where the boldest lying instead of
the boldest fighting was in demand,
and where it was possible for them
come under the orders of
a ruffian. These Princes have certainly not lessened
their claim, to the respect of their countrymen by quitting a service from which
as soon as they were completely convinced that they could
study little but blunder, braggadocio, and brutality.
BUTLER IS A SEPOY.
General Butler made a law,
And a proclamation,
On his head which fails to draw
If New Orleans ladies were
To his troops uncivil,
That they should serve the saucy fair
Like the Social Evil.
Yankee doodle doodle doo, Yankee
Butler is a rare Yahoo,
As brave as Sepoy Pandy.
POPE COMMANDS BURGLARS AND THIEVES;
The forces of
General Pope had better be organized by distribution into
divisions, each destined to carry out a
special operation. One squad of these scoundrels, selected for service
requiring the muscular strength of powerful ruffians, might be formed Into a
brigade under the denomination of Heavy Burglars; while another set of
thieves, designed for nimbler depredations, might take the name of Light
Prigs. There might also be a scientific
corps of Pickers and Stealers, capable, doubtless, of stealing any thing
but a march on the enemy; but particularly expeditious in stealing away.
It is not probable that any of General Pope's villains march wide between the
legs, because, under the present
humane conditions of penal discipline, none of them could have been
accustomed to have gyves on. There is doubtless
more then a shirt and a half in each company of them, because, if they
heretofore wanted underclothing, by this time we may be sure that they have
found linen enough on every hedge. It Is devoutly to be hoped that Pope will
soon have led his ragamuffins where they are peppered.
WE ARE NOT CONQUERING,
corpus has been suspended in the North, the Press is gagged, and the Federal
States are trying to reduce the Confederates to subjection. But to accomplish
this end they are fighting and not conquering in a fratricidal war, spreading
devastation, inflicting and suffering ruin and slaughter.
BUT VIOLATING EVERY CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLE.
The Yankees are violating every principle of Christianity. These things cost
some money, but expense can be no object to a Government running up a debt which
will be limited only by a panic and ultimately repudiated.
AND THIS IS THE STYLE OF OUR DISPATCHES.
"Camp, Chickabiddy Chokee, Monday afternoon.—The
Federal troops have won another splendid victory. Seeing
that the rebels were approaching in great force at 6 A.M.
this morning, I issued my directions for a general advance,
an order which our brave fellows were prompt to carry out.
The advance was made in the identical direction as that in which the rebel army
achieved, I need not say, with the most complete success.
Astonishing to say, the whole of our front line escaped without a hurt; and with
the exception of a few slight wounds and bruises in the rear, I really have no
casualties worth mention to report. A good deal of our baggage and some few
hundred stand of arms we left upon the field for a strategic purpose, and we
likewise abandoned about a score of field-pieces which were found to impede the
rapid movement of our troops."
BOTH SIDES ARE ROGUES.
When rogues fall out, our fathers said,
True men come by her own.
That proverb's now, by fact quite dead
Against it, overthrown.
Lo, North and South the Sword have drawn
And meet with bayonets crossed!
And our supply of cotton's gone,
Our weavers' living lost.
WE MURDER THE QUEEN'S ENGLISH.
The Yankees are always blustering loudly about going to war with England. We
should regret it for more reasons
than one, should such a wicked calamity ever occur,
and frankly because (to mention only one of our many reasons)
we should be frightened,
inasmuch as we never had five minutes' conversation with a Yankee yet,
without coming away with the painful conviction of what a rare adept he was in
murdering the Queen's
ARE WORSE THAN GOG AND MAGOG.
Ridiculous, wooden, repelling, unnatural as they may be, still against Gog and
Magog, I would back the American Demagogue to go in and win!
This furious fool (Cassius Clay) resembles nothing ever
heard in England out of Bedlam, except the noisy truculent drivel of a
violent imbecile drunkard, in a paroxysm of
delirium tremens, belching
frantic impotent abuse in the tap-room of a low public house.
Only a drunken Yankee blackguard could abuse and blaspheme England in return for
the romantic generosity with which she has abstained from supplying the South
with the ships and the weapons which were all that they wanted for the swift
discomfiture of Yankeedom.
Cassius M. Clay may pass for a stump orator; but it
was evidently from no stump that he howled his false nonsense.
He must have been rolling in the kennel or sprawling on the ground; it is
clear that he was unable to stand or go, manifest that he was lying.
THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY.
WASHINGTON, Monday. September 22.
By the President of the United States of America:
I, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President of the United States of America, and
Commander-in-Chief of the Army and
Navy thereof, etc, hereby proclaim and declare, that hereafter, as
heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for the object of practically restoring
the constitutional relation between the United States and the people thereof in
which States that relation is or may be suspended or disturbed;
that it is my purpose, upon the next meeting of Congress, to again
recommend the adoption of a practical measure tendering
pecuniary aid to the free acceptance or rejection of all the Slave States
so called, the people whereof may not then be in rebellion against the United
States, and which States may then
have voluntarily adopted, or thereafter may voluntarily adopt, the
immediate or gradual abolishment of
Slavery within their respective limits; and
that the efforts to colonize persons of African descent with their
consent, upon the continent or elsewhere, with the previously obtained consent
of the Governments existing there, will be continued.
That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight
hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State, or any
designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion
against the United States shall be then, thenceforward, and forever,
free; and the Executive Government of the United States, including the military
and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such
persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any of
them, in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom.
That the Executive will, on the first day of January
aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States and parts of
States, if any, in which the people thereof, respectively, shall then be
in rebellion against the United States; and the fact that any State, or the
people thereof, shall on that day be in good faith represented in the Congress
United States by members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the
qualified voters of such State shall have participated, shall, in the absence of
strong countervailing testimony, be
deemed conclusive evidence that such State and the people thereof have
not been in rebellion against the United States.
That attention is hereby called to an act of Congress entitled "An act to make
an additional article of war," approved March 13, 1862, and which act is in the
words and figure following:
Be it enacted by the Senate and house of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, That
following shall be promulgated as an
for the government of the army of the United States, and shall be
obeyed and observed as such.
ARTICLE—All officers or persons in the military or naval service
of the United States are prohibited from employing any of the forces
under their respective commands for the purpose of returning fugitives
from service or labor vvho may have escaped from any person
to whom such service or labor is claimed to be due, and any officer
who shall be found guilty by a Court-Martial of violating this article
shall be dismissed from the service.
SECTION 2. And be it further enacted, that this act shall take effect
from and after its passage.
Also to the ninth and tenth sections of an act entitled, "An
act to suppress insurrection, to punish treason and
rebellion, to seize and confiscate property of rebels, and for other
purposes," approved July 17, 1862, and which sections are in the words and
SEC. 9. And be it further enacted, that all slaves of persons who
shall hereafter be engaged in rebellion against the Government of
the United States, or who shall, in any way, give aid or
escaping from such persons and taking refuge within the
lines of the army, and all slaves captured from such persons or deserted
by them and coming under the control of the Government of
the United States, and all slaves of
such persons found on (or
within) any place occupied by rebel forces and afterward occupied
by the forces of the United States, shall
be deemed captures of war
and shall be forever free of their servitude and not again held as
SEC. 10. And be it further enacted, That no slave escaping into any
State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, from any of the States,
shall be delivered up, or in any way impeded or hindered of his
liberty, except for crime or some
against the laws, unless the
person claiming said
fugitive shall first make oath that the person to
whom the labor or service of such fugitive is alleged to be due is his
lawful owner, and has not been in arms against the United States in
the present rebellion, nor in any way given aid and comfort thereto,
and no person engaged in the military or naval service of the United
States shall, under any pretense whatever, assume to decide on the
validity of the claim of any
person to the service or labor of any
other person, or surrender up any such person to the claimant, on
pain of being dismissed from
And I do hereby enjoin upon and order all persons engaged in the military and
naval service of the United States, to observe, obey, and enforce, within their
respective spheres of service, the act and sections above recited.
And the Executive will in due time recommend that all citizens of the United
States who shall have remained
loyal thereto throughout the rebellion, shall (upon the restoration
of the constitutional relation between the United States and their
respective States and people, if the relation
shall have been suspended or disturbed), be compensated
for all losses by acts of the United States, including the loss of
In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the
United States to be affixed.
Done at the City of Washington, this Twenty-second day of September, in the year
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of
the United States the eighty-seventh.
By the President.
WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.
EXPULSION OF THE REBELS FROM MARYLAND.
Last week we announced that
Jackson had recrossed the Potomac, and that a great
battle would probably be fought on 17th. It was fought accordingly on that day,
near the little stream named
Antietam, and resulted in a victory for the Union
troops. We give some details of the battle, with several illustrations, on pages
632, 633, and 634. The day after the battle our army was busily engaged
in burying the dead and caring for the wounded on both sides. Meanwhile,
on 18th, the rebels succeeded in crossing the river back into Virginia. By
daylight on the morning of 19th they had all got across, through General
Pleasanton with his cavalry harassed their rear, and took
many prisoners and stores. On the evening
of 19th some of our troops
went forward on a to a reconnoissance,
and crossed the river at the ford near Shepherdstown. They were
stoutly resisted by the rebels, but succeeded in retiring to the Maryland
side, bringing four pieces of the rebel artillery with them. On 20th another
reconnoissance into Virginia was made by General Barnes, with his own and a
portion of General Sykes's brigade. Shortly after our troops had been placed in
position the enemy emerged from under the cover of woods with a line of infantry
nearly a mile long. Both forces soon engaged, when the order was given to
retire, which was done in good order, the enemy following closely behind. When
they came within range fire was opened by twenty pieces of our artillery, posted
on the Maryland bank, with such effect that they were forced to retire out of
reach. Their loss must have been
heavy, as the explosions of our shells were
seen to make large gaps in their ranks. Our loss in killed, wounded, and
prisoners was about one hundred and fifty. The troops safely returned to
Maryland, bringing their wounded with them.
A RECONNOISSANCE TO THOROUGHFARE GAP.
A detachment of the 2d Pennsylvania cavalry made a reconnoissance
on 18th from Washington in the direction
of Thoroughfare Gap, and returned on 19th with 32 rebel prisoners, and a
number of wagons and ambulances on their way to
Richmond. The country around
them was clear of rebels and undefended. Three of the prisoners belonged to the
body-guard of the rebel General Ewell, who narrowly escaped capture, having left
only a short time previous to the arrival of our cavalry. The General was
wounded, and is on his way back to Richmond.
THE REBELS FALLING BACK IN KENTUCKY.
The news from Cincinnati states that the rebels were
falling back from Florence, Kentucky, on 17th, and at last accounts were
between Demassville and Falmouth, having
destroyed the bridges on the Covington and Lexington
Railroad in their way. A scouting party of 53 of the 10th Kentucky
cavalry engaged 100 rebels near Florence on 17th, and killed five, wounded
seven, and routed the remainder. Our loss was one killed and one wounded.
It is supposed that Bragg, Kirby Smith, and H. Marshall are uniting their
THREATENED ATTACK ON LOUISVILLE
It is reported from Louisville that a portion of General
Buell's forces attacked and defeated Bragg's rear-guard at Horse Cave on
18th, and that Bragg was reported subsequently to have moved the main body of
his army across the river southward from Mumfordsville. It appears, however,
by another dispatch from
Louisville, that, instead of
moving southward, Bragg moved northward toward Louisville,
eluding General Buell, and getting several hours the start of him. The
greatest excitement existed in Louisville in consequence, and General Nelson,
who is in command there,
immediately commenced preparations to defend the city to the best, giving
notice to the inhabitants to be ready to remove the women and children at once.
Most of the stores were closed, and an attack was apprehended within forty-eight
THE NEW ARMY CORPS.
The reorganized army corps are now commended as follows: 1st—Major-General
Joseph Hooker, born in Massachusetts, appointed from California;
2d—Major-General Edwin V. Sumner,
born in Massachusetts, appointed from New York; 3d— Major-General Samuel
P. Heintzelman, born in Pennsylvania, appointed from the same State;
4th—Major-General Erasmus D. Keyes, born in Massachusetts,
appointed from Maine; 5th—Major-General
Fitz-John Porter, born in New Hampshire, appointed
from the District of Columbia. 6th—Major-General William B.
Franklin, born in Pennsylvania, appointed from the same State:
7th—Major-General John A. Dix, born in New Hampshire, appointed from New York;
John E. Wool, born in New York, appointed from the same State;
9th—Major-General Ambrose E. Burnside, born in Indiana, appointed from Rhode
Island; 10th —Major-General Ormsby M. Mitchell, born in Kentucky, appointed from
New York; 11th—Major-General
John Sedgwick, born in Connecticut, appointed from the same State; 12th
— Major-General Franz Sigel, born in Germany, appointed from Missouri.
ANOTHER CRUISE OF THE "ESSEX."
The gun-boat Essex,
Commodore Porter, has made another expedition up the river.
On reaching Natchez, the Essex sent a boat's crew ashore for ice. This lot was
fired upon and several men were wounded, whereupon Commodore Porter threw shot
and shell into Natchez for two hours and a half, when the town surrendered.
Coming down the river, the Commodore stooped at Bayou Sara, a celebrated haunt
of guerrillas, sent men ashore, and
burned all but two houses—so
there's an end of Bayou Sara. Further down the river, a battery of 34
guns opened on the Essex, and a
fierce battle, at not more than 80 feet distance, began, which lasted an
hour. The rebel battery was mounted
with guns of very heavy calibre; but that circumstance only sufficed to
prove the remarkable powers of resistance of the Essex. Her iron sides were
struck in a multitude of places with 10-inch and other
sized balls, the result in all cases being the same—a slight indentation
into the sides of the steamer, and then the
balls breaking into a thousand fragments and falling harmlessly into the
water. The Essex commenced with the upper gun and silenced them all, one after
FAILURE OF THE REBEL EXPEDITION TO NEW
We hear of the annihilation of the rebel force under General Sibley in New
Mexico. After the capture of Santa Fe, some time since, the rebels started back
toward El Paso. We last heard of them at
Fort Craig. Near Fort Fillmore Sibley
was caught between the New Mexican
General Canby and the new troops from California; result—a,
perfect smash of the rebels, who lost horses, arms, cannon, stores, and sutler's
trains, a great many killed and wounded, and half their original force taken
prisoners. The survivors were so much exasperated that they assassinated General
Sibley and Colonel Steele during their retreat. The Union forces, immediately
after the fight, took possession of El Paso and Fort Bliss, near by, and sent a
detachment to Camp Quitman, 80 miles east of El Paso. Thereupon the Texans
Fort Davis, 200 miles east of El Paso, and all the other forts in the
extreme northwest of the State—Fort Clark, 120 miles from
San Antonio, now being
the nearest fort to El Paso held by the Texans.
A NAVAL OFFICER DISMISSED.
NAVY DEPARTMENT, Sept. 20, 1862
Commander George Henry Preble, senior officer in command
of the blockading force of Mobile, having been guilty of
neglect of duty in permitting the armed steamer Oreto to run the
blockade, thereby not only disregarding Article 3d, Section 10th of the Articles
of War (which requires an officer
to do his utmost to overtake and capture or destroy every vessel which it
is his duty to encounter), but omitting the plainest ordinary duty committed to
an officer, by order of the President, dismissed from the naval service from
this date. The commander of each vessel of war, on the day after the receipt of
this published general order, will cause it to be read on the quarter-deck
at general muster, together with the accompanying reports, and enter both
upon the vessel's log.
GIDEON WELLES, Secretary of the Navy.
The following letter has been published:
To the Editor of the Hartford Courant:
At the depot in New Haven I was
introduced by my friend Mr. W. to Mrs. McClellan. I found her to be an
intelligent young woman, having with her a sweet infant,
which was almost smothered by the caresses of a number of
soldiers who had learned that she was a young McClellan.
On my way to this city, in the cars, through the politeness of her Aunt,
Mrs. A., I enjoyed the pleasure of some conversation with her. She was very
affable, and seemed to take an interest in the fact that a nephew of mine, the
colonel of a New York regiment, who recently died of disease
contracted before Richmond, was a class-mate at West Point of her
husband. She seemed much elated with the recent news. She said that when her
husband was appointed Major-General she was not much affected by it; but now,
that he has been restored to his command, and had accomplished such a triumph,
after all that had been done to degrade him, she acknowledged she felt proud. I
replied that she had a perfect right to feel so. She said that her husband had
undertaken this last service with great reluctance, but it had been pressed upon
him with an assurance that he should not be interfered with. I remarked to her
that at first I felt great confidence in her
husband, which afterward I had, to a certain extent, lost; but that I
had, previous to his last success, regained it. She said the same observation
had been made by others. I told her I thought the General had not done justice
to himself, in not explaining to the public circumstances which looked
unfavorable to him. "Do you not think," said she, "that it was more patriotic in
him to bear his wrongs in silence, rather than to trouble the Government,
as some others have done, with demands for investigations
and courts-martial, when the delays caused by them would
be injurious to the country? The General," the remarked, "when the clouds
covering him were of the darkest hue, had faith that God would yet make him an
instrument of good to the cause of his country."
MORE REBEL CAVALRY.
A few days since one of Commodore Farragut's men was
tied to a tree and disemboweled by a party of Mississippians,
who captured him while wandering to the shore, near the
gun-boats, in the neighborhood of
Vicksburg. A party of rebels recently
visited a house On Pawpaw Island, ten miles
below Vicksburg, and demanded food for themselves in the
name of the Confederacy. The only occupant of the house was an old woman eighty
years of age, who gave them the dinner they desired, but told them they were
trying to break up one of the best Governments in the world, and that they could
never form another as good. She begged them to disperse and go to their homes,
and cease to annoy the people of the region around. The ruffians became enraged
at her words, and after numerous threats against every friend of the Union, they
deliberately carried her out of the house and hung her upon a tree before
her own door.
THE MAINE ELECTION.
Returns of the election for Governor in Maine have been received from three
hundred and eighty-four towns The result, as compared with the vote in the same
towns last year, is as follows:
Republican 42,913 53,316
War Democratic 6,738 19,818
Peace Democratic 30,466 18,072
THE London Herald of the 2d inst says: "Mr. Mason, the Commissioner from the
Southern Confederacy, is at present paying a visit to Scotland. On Thursday he
was at Glasgow, and on Friday proceeded to Glenquoich, the residence of the
Right Hon. Edward Ellice. He had previously been the guest of Mr. Stewart, of
Garibaldi's wound is said to be of a
serious nature. He asks to be placed on board an English vessel. No documents or
money were found at the place of his defeat. No decision had been come to with
regard to his trial. The people of Italy are in favor of
a general amnesty.
MORE PRIZES TO BE TAKEN.
It appears that there are
now lying in the port of St. George no less then five "Anglo-Confederate"
steamers awaiting a chance to give
aid to the rebels, but apparently
in quandary as to their future movements. One of them, the Minho, arrived
from Charleston with cotton for Liverpool, but was out of coal, and had
to burn her bulwarks and mainmast